International PHP Conference 2019 - Spring Edition

preg_replace_callback

(PHP 4 >= 4.0.5, PHP 5, PHP 7)

preg_replace_callbackSucht und ersetzt mit regulären Ausdrücken unter Verwendung eines Callbacks

Beschreibung

mixed preg_replace_callback ( mixed $pattern , callable $callback , mixed $subject [, int $limit = -1 [, int &$count ]] )

Abgesehen von der Tatsache, dass statt des Parameters replacement ein callback angegeben werden soll, ist das Verhalten dieser Funktion identisch zu preg_replace().

Parameter-Liste

pattern

Der Ausdruck, nach dem gesucht werden soll. Es kann entweder eine Zeichenkette oder ein Array mit Zeichenketten sein.

callback

Ein Callback, dem ein Array von Übereinstimmungen mit subject übergeben wird. Der Callback sollte die Ersetzungs-Zeichenkette liefern. Das ist die Callback-Signatur:

string handler ( array $matches )

Häufig werden Sie die callback-Funktion für preg_replace_callback() nur an einer Stelle benötigen. In diesem Fall können Sie eine Anonyme Funktion verwenden, um innerhalb des Aufrufs von preg_replace_callback() den Callback zu deklarieren. Auf diese Weise haben Sie alle Informationen für den Aufruf an einer Stelle und stopfen den Namensraum für Funktionen nicht mit Namen für Callback-Funktionen voll, die sonst nirgends verwendet werden.

Beispiel #1 preg_replace_callback() und Anonyme Funktion

<?php
// ein Kommandozeilen-Filter im Unix-Stil zum Umwandeln von Groß- in
// Kleinschreibung am Beginn eines Abschnitts
$fp fopen("php://stdin""r") or die("kann stdin nicht lesen");
while (!
feof($fp)) {
  
$zeile fgets($fp);
  
$zeile preg_replace_callback(
    
'|<p>\s*\w|',
    function (
$treffer) {
      return 
strtolower($treffer[0]);
    },
    
$zeile
  
);
  echo 
$zeile;
}
fclose($fp);
?>

subject

Die Zeichenkette oder ein Array mit Zeichenketten zum Suchen und Ersetzen.

limit

Die Höchstzahl der Ersetzungen für jedes Suchmuster in jeder subject. Standardmäßig -1 (unbegrenzt).

count

Falls angegeben, wird dieser Variable die Anzahl vorgenommener Ersetzungen zugewiesen.

Rückgabewerte

Falls subject ein Array ist, gibt preg_replace_callback() ein Array zurück und andernfalls eine Zeichenkette. Bei einem Fehler ist der Rückgabewert NULL.

Falls Übereinstimmungen gefunden werden, wird die neue Zeichenkette zurückgegeben und andernfalls die unveränderte Zeichenkette subject

Changelog

Version Beschreibung
5.1.0 Den Parameter count hinzugefügt

Beispiele

Beispiel #2 preg_replace_callback() Beispiel

<?php
// dieser Text wurde 2002 verwendet
// wir wollen ihn für 2003 aktualisieren
$text "Aprilscherze gibts am 01.04.2002\n";
$text.= "Das letzte Weihnachten war am 24.12.2001\n";
// die Callback-Funktion
function naechstes_jahr($treffer)
{
  
// wie üblich: $treffer[0] ist die Übereinstimmung mit dem
  // kompletten Suchmuster, $treffer[1] die Übereinstimmung mit
  // dem ersten eingeklammerten Teilsuchmuster und so weiter
  
return $treffer[1].($treffer[2]+1);
}
echo 
preg_replace_callback(
            
"|(\d{2}\.\d{2}\.)(\d{4})|",
            
"naechstes_jahr",
            
$text);

?>

Das oben gezeigte Beispiel erzeugt folgende Ausgabe:

Aprilscherze gibts am 01.04.2003
Das letzte Weihnachten war am 24.12.2002

Beispiel #3 preg_replace_callback() unter Verwendung einer rekursiven Struktur um gekapselten BB-Code zu verarbeiten

<?php
$eingabe 
"plain [indent] deep [indent] deeper [/indent] deep [/indent] plain";

function 
parseTagsRecursive($eingabe)
{
  
$regex '#\[indent]((?:[^[]|\[(?!/?indent])|(?R))+)\[/indent]#';

  if (
is_array($eingabe)) {
    
$eingabe '<div style="margin-left: 10px">'.$eingabe[1].'</div>';
  }

  return 
preg_replace_callback($regex'parseTagsRecursive'$eingabe);
}

$ausgabe parseTagsRecursive($eingabe);

echo 
$ausgabe;
?>

Siehe auch

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 20 notes

up
72
Richard
6 years ago
The easiest way to pass more than one parameters to the callback function is with the 'use' keyword.

[This is better than using global, because it works even when we are already inside a function.]

In this example, the callback function is an anonymous function, which takes one argument, $match, supplied by preg_replace_callback().  The extra
"use ($ten)" puts the $ten variable into scope for the function.

<?php
$string
= "Some numbers: one: 1; two: 2; three: 3 end";
$ten = 10;
$newstring = preg_replace_callback(
   
'/(\\d+)/',
    function(
$match) use ($ten) { return (($match[0] + $ten)); },
   
$string
   
);
echo
$newstring;
#prints "Some numbers: one: 11; two: 12; three: 13 end";
?>
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21
Yuri
6 years ago
If you want to call non-static function inside your class, you can do something like this.

For PHP 5.2 use second argument like array($this, 'replace'):
<?php
class test_preg_callback{

  private function
process($text){
   
$reg = "/\{([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+)\:([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+):?\}/";
    return
preg_replace_callback($reg, array($this, 'replace'), $text);
  }
 
  private function
replace($matches){
    if (
method_exists($this, $matches[1])){
      return @
$this->$matches[1]($matches[2]);    
    }
  } 
}
?>

For PHP 5.3 use second argument like "self::replace":
<?php
class test_preg_callback{

  private function
process($text){
   
$reg = "/\{([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+)\:([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+):?\}/";
    return
preg_replace_callback($reg, "self::replace", $text);
  }
 
  private function
replace($matches){
    if (
method_exists($this, $matches[1])){
      return @
$this->$matches[1]($matches[2]);    
    }
  } 
}
?>
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9
Fredow
3 years ago
<?php
// Nice little function that convert a string to uppercase by keeping the HTMLentities intact.
public static function strtoupper_entities($str) {

   
$patternMajEntities = '/(\&([A-Z])(ACUTE|CEDIL|CARON|CIRC|GRAVE|ORN|RING|SLASH|TH|TILDE|UML)\;)+/';
   
$str = preg_replace_callback ($patternMajEntities,
        function (
$matches) {
            return
"&" . $matches[2] . strtolower($matches[3]) . ";";
        },
strtoupper($str));
   
    return
$str;
}
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2
carlos dot ballesteros at softonic dot com
9 years ago
A simple function to replace a list of complete words or terms in a string (for PHP 5.3 or above because of the closure):

<?php
function replace_words($list, $line, $callback) {
    return
preg_replace_callback(
       
'/(^|[^\\w\\-])(' . implode('|', array_map('preg_quote', $list)) . ')($|[^\\w\\-])/mi',
        function(
$v) use ($callback) { return $v[1] . $callback($v[2]) . $v[3]; },
       
$line
   
);
}
?>

Example of usage:
<?php
$list
= array('php', 'apache web server');
$str = "php and the apache web server work fine together. php-gtk, for example, won't match. apache web servers shouldn't too.";

echo
replace_words($list, $str, function($v) {
    return
"<strong>{$v}</strong>";
});
?>
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3
Florian Arndt
6 years ago
This small class allows PHP users to read JSON files with include statements in them. For instance the include {{{ "relative/to/including.json" }}} is replaced by the content of the json file located at "relative/to/including.json".

<?php
   
/**
     * Handles JSON files with includes
     * Purpose: handle bigger JSON files by featuring "includes"
     *
     * @author Florian Arndt
     */
   
class JWI {
       
/**
         * Parses a JSON file and returns its contents
         * @param String $filename
         */
       
static function read($filename) {
            if(!
file_exists($filename))
                throw new
Exception('<b>JWI Error: JSON file <tt>'.$filename.'</tt> not found!</b>');
           
$content = join('', file($filename));
           
$dir = dirname($filename);
           
/**
             * replace
             *   include statements
             * with
             *   content of the file to include
             * recursively
             */
           
$content = preg_replace_callback(
               
'/{{{\s*"\s*(.+)\s*"\s*}}}/', // >include file< - pattern
               
create_function(
                   
'$matches', // callback parameter
                   
sprintf(
                       
'$fn = "%s/".$matches[1];'.
                       
'return JWI::read($fn);',
                       
realpath(dirname($filename))
                    )
                ),
               
$content
           
);
            return
$content;
        }
    }
up
3
Anonymous
8 years ago
Created this to fetch the link and name of an anchor tag. I use this when cleaning an HTML email to text. Using regex for HTML is not recommended but for this purpose I see no issue with it. This is not designed to work for nested anchors.

A note to keep in mind:
I was primarily concerned with valid HTML so if attributes do no use ' or " to contain the values then this will need to be tweaked.
If you can edit this to work better, please let me know.
<?php
/**
* Replaces anchor tags with text
* - Will search string and replace all anchor tags with text (case insensitive)
*
* How it works:
* - Searches string for an anchor tag, checks to make sure it matches the criteria
*         Anchor search criteria:
*             - 1 - <a (must have the start of the anchor tag )
*             - 2 - Can have any number of spaces or other attributes before and after the href attribute
*             - 3 - Must close the anchor tag
*
* - Once the check has passed it will then replace the anchor tag with the string replacement
* - The string replacement can be customized
*
* Know issue:
* - This will not work for anchors that do not use a ' or " to contain the attributes.
*         (i.e.- <a href=http: //php.net>PHP.net</a> will not be replaced)
*/
function replaceAnchorsWithText($data) {
   
/**
     * Had to modify $regex so it could post to the site... so I broke it into 6 parts.
     */
   
$regex  = '/(<a\s*'; // Start of anchor tag
   
$regex .= '(.*?)\s*'; // Any attributes or spaces that may or may not exist
   
$regex .= 'href=[\'"]+?\s*(?P<link>\S+)\s*[\'"]+?'; // Grab the link
   
$regex .= '\s*(.*?)\s*>\s*'; // Any attributes or spaces that may or may not exist before closing tag
   
$regex .= '(?P<name>\S+)'; // Grab the name
   
$regex .= '\s*<\/a>)/i'; // Any number of spaces between the closing anchor tag (case insensitive)
   
   
if (is_array($data)) {
       
// This is what will replace the link (modify to you liking)
       
$data = "{$data['name']}({$data['link']})";
    }
    return
preg_replace_callback($regex, 'replaceAnchorsWithText', $data);
}

$input  = 'Test 1: <a href="http: //php.net1">PHP.NET1</a>.<br />';
$input .= 'Test 2: <A name="test" HREF=\'HTTP: //PHP.NET2\' target="_blank">PHP.NET2</A>.<BR />';
$input .= 'Test 3: <a hRef=http: //php.net3>php.net3</a><br />';
$input .= 'This last line had nothing to do with any of this';

echo
replaceAnchorsWithText($input).'<hr/>';
?>
Will output:
Test 1: PHP.NET1(http: //php.net1).
Test 2: PHP.NET2(HTTP: //PHP.NET2).
Test 3: php.net3 (is still an anchor)
This last line had nothing to do with any of this
up
2
kkatpki
5 years ago
Note that, as of PHP 5.3, it seems that named subpatterns are now included in the matches array by their named key as well as their numerical key.

To build off of Chris' previous example, as of PHP 5.3, you *can* do

<?php

preg_replace_callback
('/(?<char>[a-z])/', 'callback', 'word');

function
callback($matches) {
   
var_dump($matches);
}

?>

and expect to get $matches['char'] in your function. * BUT ONLY AS OF PHP 5.3 *

Please be mindful of this if you intend to support PHP 5.2.
up
2
chris at ocproducts dot com
8 years ago
The pcre.backtrack_limit option (added in PHP 5.2) can trigger a NULL return, with no errors. The default pcre.backtrack_limit value is 100000. If you have a match that exceeds about half this limit it triggers a NULL response.
e.g. My limit was at 100000 but 500500 triggered a NULL response. I'm not running unicode but I *guess* PCRE runs in utf-16.
up
1
Drake
8 years ago
Decode Hexa to Strings =)
<?php
class PhpHex2Str
{
    private
$strings;

    private function
x_hex2str($hex) {
       
$hex = substr($hex[0], 1);
       
$str = '';
        for(
$i=0;$i < strlen($hex);$i+=2) {
           
$str.=chr(hexdec(substr($hex,$i,2)));
        }
        return
$str;
    }

    public function
decode($strings = null) {
       
$this->strings = (string) $strings;
        return
preg_replace_callback('#\%[a-zA-Z0-9]{2}#', 'x_hex2str', $this->strings);
    }
}

// Example
$strings = 'a %20 b%0A h %27 h %23';

$obj = new PhpHex2Str;
$strings = $obj->decode($strings);
var_dump($strings);
?>
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1
Sjon at hortensius dot net
11 years ago
preg_replace_callback returns NULL when pcre.backtrack_limit is reached; this sometimes occurs faster then you might expect. No error is raised either; so don't forget to check for NULL yourself
up
1
Drake
8 years ago
The good version of the class PhpHex2Str
<?php
class PhpHex2Str
{
    private
$strings;

    private static function
x_hex2str($hex) {
       
$hex = substr($hex[0], 1);
       
$str = '';
        for(
$i=0;$i < strlen($hex);$i+=2) {
           
$str.=chr(hexdec(substr($hex,$i,2)));
        }
        return
$str;
    }

    public function
decode($strings = null) {
       
$this->strings = (string) $strings;
        return
preg_replace_callback('#\%[a-zA-Z0-9]{2}#', 'PhpHex2Str::x_hex2str', $this->strings);
    }
}

// Exemple
$obj = new PhpHex2Str;

$strings = $obj->decode($strings);
var_dump($strings);
?>
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3
development at HashNotAdam dot com
6 years ago
From PHP 5.3 you can use an anonymous function to pass local variables into the callback.

<?php

public function replace_variables( $subject, $otherVars ) {
   
$linkPatterns = array(
       
'/(<a .*)href=(")([^"]*)"([^>]*)>/U',
       
"/(<a .*)href=(')([^']*)'([^>]*)>/U"
   
);

   
$callback = function( $matches ) use ( $otherVars ) {
       
$this->replace_callback($matches, $otherVars);
    };

    return
preg_replace_callback($this->patterns, $callback, $subject);
}

public function
replace_callback($matches, $otherVars) {
    return
$matches[1] . $otherVars['myVar'];
}
?>
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1
2962051004 at qq dot com
12 days ago
<?php

/**
* 将中文转为Html实体
* Turning Chinese into Html entity
* Author QiangGe
* Mail 2962051004@qq.com
*
*/

$str = <<<EOT
你好 world
EOT;

function
ChineseToEntity($str) {
return
preg_replace_callback(
       
'/[\x{4e00}-\x{9fa5}]/u', // utf-8
        // '/[\x7f-\xff]+/', // if gb2312
       
function ($matches) {
           
$json = json_encode(array($matches[0]));
           
preg_match('/\[\"(.*)\"\]/', $json, $arr);
           
/*
             * 通过json_encode函数将中文转为unicode
             * 然后用正则取出unicode
             * Turn the Chinese into Unicode through the json_encode function, then extract Unicode from regular.
             * I think this idea is seamless.
            */
           
return '&#x'. str_replace('\\u', '', $arr[1]). ';';
        },
$str
  
);
}

echo
ChineseToEntity($str);
// &#x4f60;&#x597d; world
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0
tgage at nobigfoot dot com
3 months ago
To use variable from the parent scope of the anonymous callback function passed to preg_replace_callback(), utilize the use() parameter.

$var1 = "one";
$var2 = "two";
$line = preg_replace_callback('/^.*$/',
            function( $matches ) use ( $var1, $var2 ) {
                return( $var1 . " " . $var2 );
            }, $line);

Will replace the entire string with the concatenated values or $var1 and $var2 ("one two") from the parent scope.
up
0
steven at nevvix dot com
4 months ago
<?php
$format
= <<<SQL
CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS :database;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON :database_name.* TO ':user'@':host';
SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD(':pass');
SQL;
$args = ["database"=>"people", "user"=>"staff", "pass"=>"pass123", "host"=>"localhost"];

preg_replace_callback("/:(\w+)/", function ($matches) use ($args) {
    return @
$args[$matches[1]] ?: $matches[0];
},
$format);

/*
Result:

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS people;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON :database_name.* TO 'staff'@'localhost';
SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('pass123');

The `:database_name` placeholder doesn't exist as a matching key in `$args` so it's returned as is.
This way you know you need to correct the array by adding the "database_name" item.
*/
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0
Anteaus
3 years ago
Be aware that as of php5.4 you MUST NOT pass variables by reference, as in  '[, int &$count ]' - if you do it will result in a fatal error.
I think the writer is trying to say that the function accepts the parameter by reference, but that is not how it reads. -Manual needs updating/clarifying ?
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0
T-Soloveychik at ya dot ru
5 years ago
Text lines numeration:
<?PHP
// Multieline text:
   
$Text = "
Some
Multieline
text
for
numeration"
;

// For count:
   
$GLOBALS["LineNUMBER"] = 1;

// Replace linestart on number:
   
PRINT preg_replace_callback("/^/m",function ()
        {
            return
$GLOBALS["LineNUMBER"]++."  ";
        },
       
$Text);

?>

1
2 Some
3 Multieline
4 text
5 for
6 numeration
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0
matt at mattsoft dot net
12 years ago
it is much better on preformance and better practice to use the preg_replace_callback function instead of preg_replace with the e modifier.

function a($text){return($text);}

// 2.76 seconds to run 50000 times
preg_replace("/\{(.*?)\}/e","a('\\1','\\2','\\3',\$b)",$a);

// 0.97 seconds to run 50000 times
preg_replace_callback("/\{(.*?)\}/s","a",$a);
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-1
Underdog
4 years ago
For the callback I advise only to use a permanent or anonymous function.

Depending on the usage you may encounter memory issues when using create_function for the callback possibly due to attempts at being compatible with PHP 5.2 or prior. Some servers  refuse to update their PHP  for whatever reason.

Please peruse the create_function documentation for more details regarding its memory usage.

Regards.
up
-1
alex dot cs00 at yahoo dot ca
8 years ago
Don't use this function to fetch BBCode, as explained. If you have some text that runs over 5000 chars (average), it will run out of its limit and makes you download the PHP page.

According to this, you should instead use something more advanced yet complex. You will need a function called "str_replace_once()" (search for it), one called "countWord()", the famous "after()", "before()", "between()".

str_replace_once does same as str_replace, but only replace first occurence. As for countWord, I guess you know how to count the number of a word occurence. As for after, before and between, this is a function that you may find easily somewhere on the site by a user. Else, you can do it.

The following function is able to do all blocks, supposing [code] and [/code], you might wish things between parents dont get parsed, including [code] if inside of another [code].

<?php
function prepareCode($code, $op, $end)
{
   
$ix = 0;
   
$iy = 0;
   
$nbr_Op = countWord($op, $code);
    while(
$ix < $nbr_Op)
    {
        if(
in_string($op, before($end, $code), false))
        {
           
// The following piece of code replace the default [tag] by [tag:#]
           
$code = str_replace_once($op, substr($op, 0, -1).':'.$ix.']', $code);
           
$iy++;
        }
        elseif(
in_string($end, before($op, $code), false))
        {
           
$iy = $iy-1;
           
$code = str_replace_once($end, substr($end, 0, -1).':'.($ix-1).']', $code);
           
$ix = $ix-2;
        }
       
$ix++;
    }
    while(
in_string($end, $code))
    {
       
$code = str_replace_once($end, substr($end, 0, -1).':'.($iy-1).']', $code);
       
$iy=$iy-1;
    }

   
$code = preg_replace('#\\'.substr($end, 0, 1).':-[0-9]\]#i', '', $code);
    if(
in_string(substr($op, 0, -1).':0]', $code) && !in_string(substr($end, 0, -1).':0]', $code))
    {
       
$code .= substr($end, 0, -1).":0]";
    }
    return
$code;
}
?>

$code returns the whole text semi-formated. You only need to use it as :
$code = prepareCode($code="Your text", $op="[tag]" , $end="[/tag]");
Then just replace the parent tags :
str_replace("[tag:0]", "<tag>", $code);
str_replace("[/tag:0]", "</tag>", $code);
So at the end something like :
[
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