FastCGI Process Manager (FPM)


FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) は PHP の FastCGI 実装のひとつで、 主に高負荷のサイトで有用な追加機能を用意しています。


  • 緩やかな (graceful) 停止/起動 機能を含む高度なプロセス管理

  • 異なる uid/gid/chroot/environment でのワーカーの開始、 異なるポートでのリスン、異なる php.ini の使用 (safe_mode の代替)

  • 標準出力および標準エラー出力へのログ出力

  • opcode キャッシュが壊れた場合の緊急再起動

  • 高速なアップロードのサポート

  • "slowlog" - 実行時間が非常に長いスクリプトの記録 (スクリプト名だけでなく、PHP バックトレースも記録します。バックトレースを取得するために、 ptrace やそれと同等の仕組みを使ってリモートプロセスの execute_data を読みます)

  • fastcgi_finish_request() - 何か時間のかかる処理 (動画の変換や統計情報の処理など) を継続しながら リクエストを終了させてすべてのデータを出力させるための特殊な関数

  • 動的/静的 な子プロセスの起動

  • 基本的な SAPI の動作状況 (Apache の mod_status と同等)

  • php.ini ベースの設定ファイル

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User Contributed Notes 4 notes

robin at robinwinslow dot co dot uk
7 years ago
Init script setup

You will probably want to create an init script for your new php-fpm. Fortunately, PHP 5.3.3 provides one for you, which you should copy to your init directory and change permissions:

$ cp <php-5.3.3-source-dir>/sapi/fpm/ /etc/init.d/php-fpm
$ chmod 755 /etc/init.d/php-fpm

It requires a certain amount of setup. First of all, make sure your php-fpm.conf file is set up to  create a PID file when php-fpm starts. E.g.:
pid = /var/run/
(also make sure your php-fpm user has permission to create this file).

Now open up your new init script (/etc/init.d/php-fpm) and set the variables at the top to their relevant values. E.g.:

Your init script is now ready. You should now be able to start, stop and reload php-fpm:

$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm start
$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm stop
$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm reload

The one remaining thing you may wish to do is to add your new php-fpm init script to system start-up. E.g. in CentOS:

$ /sbin/chkconfig php-fpm on


Disclaimer: Although I did just do this on my own server about 20 mins ago, everything I've written here is off the top of my head, so it may not be 100% correct. Also, allow for differences in system setup. Some understanding of what you are doing is assumed.
joel k
7 years ago
the fpm process supports the USER2 signal, which is used to reload the config file.

kill -USR2 [pid]

should do the trick.
kokushibyou at gmail dot com
5 years ago
PHP-FPM is FAST - but be wary of using it while your code base is stored on NFS - under average load your NFS server will feel some serious strain. I have yet to find a work around for this bug:
dreamcat4 at gmail dot com
4 years ago
Doesn't work? Enable logging!

The php-fpm.log file is a great place to fault-find errors and get to the bottom of a problem. But be sure to enable logging for your specific worker pool. Or you won't see anything!


To enable error logging for the default [www] worker pool, add this line in the [www] section of your php-fpm.conf:

catch_workers_output = yes
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